(From the E-i-C: Here are links to the introduction and previous chapters. We need your comments / peer review to make this primer on education theory better. Please include them in the comments section at the end of each chapter. We will acknowledge your contribution in the forthcoming eBook.)
Authors: Lauren Conlon, Kory London, Michael Pasirstein
Editor: Teresa Chan
|Emotional Intelligence/Quotient – EI/EQ|
|Main Authors or Originators:
Hanscarl Leuner – Emotional intelligence and emancipation (1966)
Daniel Goleman – Emotional Intelligence (1995)
Peter Salovey and John Mayer – Emotional Intelligence (1990)
|Other important authors or books
Harold Gardner – Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
Wayne Payne – Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence; Self- Integration; Relating To Fear, Pain And Desire (1985)
|Part 1: The Hook|
|Omar, a second year emergency medicine resident, had recently finished a six-week long stretch of shifts in the Emergency Department and had moved onto an administrative rotation when he was called into the program director’s office. The program director was notified by clinical leadership in the department that there had been a number of recent complaints received from patients and nurses over the past few weeks regarding his performance. Omar had always scored at the top of his class with marks above the 95th percentile for the in-service exam and he had performed well clinically during his intern year.
He is one of the quieter residents and typically flies below the radar on shifts. He is not overly emotional and is one of the more soft-spoken residents. When he meets with the program director, Lara, he is unaware of the reason.
“Thank you for meeting with me Omar. We need to review your performance over the past few weeks in the emergency department as there were some comments made by patients and nurses about your interactions with them. Were you aware of any difficult situations over the past few weeks when you were working in the department?” asks the program director.
Omar is not sure how to respond. “Not really, what kind of comments?”
The program director hands him a piece of paper with the following comments:
Patient Complaint 1
“The resident didn’t listen to me”
Patient Complaint 2
“He didn’t seem very happy to be there and was rude”
“Omar is consistently dismissive of suggestions made by nursing staff and does not communicate his plans effectively.”
How can the theories of Emotional Intelligence help us to understand the current situation?
|Part 3: The Denouement|
|Lara asks Omar about his thoughts on the feedback he just received, and Omar appears upset, though he very casually says that he is fine. At that moment, it becomes clear to Lara. Omar is looking away and his arms are crossed.
Lara questions Omar if he recognizes his current body language, and what he is indicating. Omar is embarrassed and admits that he has struggled with social interaction all his life, as that it does not come naturally to him. Omar admits that he wants to improve, and continues to add that he is not interested in seeking a therapist. Omar states that his adviser in medical school attempted multiple times for him to seek mental health treatment, but Omar did not want any associated stigma.
Surprised that mental health was the only suggestion previously offered, Lara asks Omar if he has done any readings on emotional intelligence. Lara then has a heart-to-heart with Omar.
At the conclusion of their discussion, Omar gladly accepts the opportunity to lead a 30 minute talk on emotional intelligence during the residency’s weekly conference. Omar is expected to review current literature and provide a succinct talk on methods that physicians at all levels can implement.
They also agree to set up weekly assignments to improve his interactions. His first assignment is to maintain eye contact, for at least a short period of time, with every patient encounter. His second week task is to add shaking the patient’s hand upon introducing himself, sitting down next to his patients, and be cognizant about crossing his arms. His final goal is to verbally express emotions.
PLEASE ADD YOUR PEER REVIEW IN THE COMMENTS SECTION BELOW
- Leuner, B (1966). “Emotional intelligence and emancipation”.Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie 15: 193–203.
- Payne, W.L. (1983/1986). A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self integration; relating to fear, pain and desire” Dissertation Abstracts International 47, p. 203A (University microfilms No. AAC 8605928)
- Beasley, K. (1987). The Emotional Quotient. Mensa, May 1987, p25
- Mayer, John D (2008). “Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence”. Annual Review of Psychology 59: 507–536. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093646
- Kluemper, D.H. (2008). “Trait emotional intelligence: The impact of core-self evaluations and social desirability”.Personality and Individual Differences 44 (6): 1402–1412.doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.12.008
- Martins, A.; Ramalho, N.; Morin, E. (2010). “A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health”. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 49 (6): 554–564.doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.029
- Mayer, J.D.; Salovey, P.; Caruso, D.L.; Sitarenios, G. (2001). “Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence”. Emotion 1: 232–242. doi:10.1037/1528-3518.104.22.168
- MacCann, C.; Joseph, D.L.; Newman, D.A.; Roberts, R.D. (2014). “Emotional intelligence is a second-stratum factor of intelligence: Evidence from hierarchical and bifactor models”.Emotion 14: 358–374. doi:10.1037/a0034755
- Van Rooy, David L, and Chockalingam Viswesvaran. “Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net.” Journal of vocational Behavior 65.1 (2004): 71-95.
- Weng, Hui‐Ching et al. “Associations between emotional intelligence and doctor burnout, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction.” Medical education 45.8 (2011): 835-842.
- Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books
- Zeidner, Moshe, Gerald Matthews, and Richard D. Roberts. “Emotional intelligence in the workplace: A critical review.” Applied Psychology 53.3 (2004): 371-399
- Cavazotte, Flavia, Valter Moreno, and Mateus Hickmann. “Effects of leader intelligence, personality and emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and managerial performance.” The Leadership Quarterly 23.3 (2012): 443-455.
- Petrides, K.V.; Furnham, A. (2001). “Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies”. European Journal of Personality 15: 425–448. doi:10.1002/per.416
- Petrides, K.V.; Pita, R.; Kokkinaki, F. (2007). “The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space”. British Journal of Psychology 98: 273–289.doi:10.1348/000712606×120618
- Brannick MT, Wahi MM, Arce M, Johnson HA, Nazian S, Goldin SB. Comparison of trait and ability measures of emotional intelligence in medical students. Med Educ. 2009 Nov;43(11):1062-8.
- Berenson, Robin, Gary Boyles, and Ann Weaver. “Emotional intelligence as a predictor of success in online learning.” The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 9.2 (2008)
- Ambrose, Paul, John Chenoweth, and En Mao. “Leadership in virtual teams: The case for emotional intelligence.” AMCIS 2009 Proceedings (2009): 626.
- Pitts, Virginia E., Natalie A. Wright, and Lindsey C. Harkabus. “Communication in Virtual Teams: The Role of Emotional Intelligence.”Journal of Organizational Psychology 12.3/4 (2012): 21.
- Bensing J. Doctor-patient communication and the quality of care. Soc Scr Med. 1991;32(11):1301-10.
- Mehrabian, Albert (1971). Silent Messages (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-00910-7
- Griffith CH 3rd, Wilson JF, Langer S, Haist SA. House staff nonverbal communication skills and standardized patient satisfaction. J Gen Intern Medicine. 2003 Mar;18(3):170-4. PMID 12648247
- DiMatteo MR, Taranta A, Friedman H, Prince LM. Predicting Patient Satisfaction from Physicians” Nonverbal Communication Skills. Medical Care. 1980 Apr;18(4):376-87. PMID: 7401698
- Suchman AL, Markakis K, Beckman HB, Frankel R. A model of empathic communication in the medical interview. JAMA. 1997 Feb 26;277(8):678-82.
- Shields CG, Epstein RM, Franks P, Fiscella K, Duberstein P, McDaniel S, Meldrum S. Emotion language in primary care encounter: reliability and validity of an emotion word. Patient Education and Counseling. 2005 May;57(2): 232-8.
- Barsade SG. 2002. The ripple effect: emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Adm. Sci. Q. 47:644–75.